Understanding The Types of Hearing Loss: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

An ear with soundwaves going into it.

Today, we delve deep into the different types of hearing loss, offering a comprehensive guide that covers everything from causes to symptoms and treatment options. We aim to empower you with knowledge so you can make informed decisions for your hearing health. Whether you’re new to hearing aids or a seasoned user looking to understand more, this article provides valuable insights for everyone. Stay tuned as we demystify the causes of hearing loss and how you can take proactive steps for a better quality of life.


What Are the Different Types of Hearing Loss?

Hearing loss is more common than you may think. In the United States, more than 1 in 10 people experience some degree of hearing loss. The prevalence increases with age: about one-third of adults over 65, and nearly half of those 75 and older, face age-related hearing loss. Even at birth, about 2 in 1,000 babies show signs of hearing issues.

Main Types of Hearing Loss

  • Conductive Hearing Loss: Occurs when an issue in the outer or middle ear blocks sound waves from reaching the inner ear. Common causes include earwax buildup, fluid retention, or a perforated eardrum. Often temporary, you can usually treat this type with medication or surgery.
  • Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve causes this loss. Factors such as noise exposure, aging, and certain medications can lead to sensorineural hearing loss, which is often permanent but manageable with hearing aids.
  • Mixed Hearing Loss: This combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss affects both the outer/middle and inner ear.

Now that we’ve outlined the different types of hearing loss, let’s explore how severity levels further categorize these conditions.

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Severity of Hearing Loss

  • Mild: Those with mild hearing loss may struggle to hear soft sounds or understand speech in noisy settings.
  • Moderate: Normal conversation becomes challenging for people with moderate hearing loss, especially in loud environments.
  • Severe: Without hearing aids, those with severe hearing loss have difficulty hearing loud sounds or understanding speech.
  • Profound: This is the most extreme form, where individuals can’t hear anything without the aid of assistive devices.

Understanding these types and their characteristics helps you take informed steps towards better hearing health.

What Are the Causes of Hearing Loss?

Hearing loss can stem from a range of factors that affect different parts of the ear. Let’s break down the primary causes of the different types of hearing loss they usually result in.

Causes of Conductive Hearing Loss

  • Earwax Buildup: Excessive earwax can block sound waves.
  • Fluid Accumulation: Cold or allergy-induced fluid in the middle ear.
  • Ear Infections: Conditions like otitis media or swimmers’ ear.
  • Eustachian Tube Issues: These can trap fluid in the middle ear.
  • Ruptured Eardrum: Loud noises or pressure changes can rupture the eardrum.
  • Tumors or Bone Growths: Rare but significant causes of hearing loss.
  • Foreign Objects: Items stuck in the ear can obstruct sound waves.
  • Congenital Conditions: Some babies are born with malformations affecting hearing.
A 3-D model of the inner, middle, and outer ear.


Causes of Sensorineural Hearing Loss

  • Aging: Natural wear and tear can lead to age-related hearing loss.
  • Noise Exposure: Long-term exposure to loud noise damages the inner ear.
  • Medical Conditions: Diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease can affect hearing.
  • Genetic Factors: Some inherited conditions predispose people to hearing loss.
  • Ototoxic Medications: Drugs like some antibiotics and large amounts of aspirin can impair hearing.
  • Physical Injury: Trauma to the head can affect the inner ear or auditory nerve.
  • Meniere’s Disease: An inner ear condition causing intermittent hearing loss, dizziness, and tinnitus.
  • Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions where the body attacks its own ear can result in rapid hearing loss.

Mixed Hearing Loss Causes

This type of hearing loss combines elements of both conductive and sensorineural causes. For instance, medication affecting the inner ear coupled with a ruptured eardrum would lead to mixed hearing loss.

By understanding what are the causes of hearing loss, you can better manage your hearing health and seek timely treatment when needed.

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What Are the Symptoms of Hearing Loss?

Recognizing the early signs of hearing loss can be challenging, mainly because it often occurs gradually. Symptoms can vary in severity and type, but here are common indicators organized by the degree of hearing loss.

Mild Hearing Loss Symptoms:

  • Difficulty in Noisy Environments: Struggling to follow conversations when background noise is present.
  • Not Hearing High-Pitched Sounds: Failing to hear birds singing or children’s voices.
  • Turning Up the Volume: Increasing the volume on TV, phone, or tablet.

Moderate Hearing Loss Symptoms:

  • Frequent Clarifications: Regularly asking people to repeat themselves.
    Telephone Struggles: Finding it hard to understand conversations over the phone.
    Misinterpretation: Often misunderstanding what people say.

Severe Hearing Loss Symptoms:

  • Reliance on Hearing Aid: Conversations become almost impossible without a hearing aid.
    Avoidance of Social Settings: Steering clear of places with many people due to hearing difficulties.
    Loud Speech Incomprehension: Struggling to understand even loud speech without assistive devices.

Profound Hearing Loss Symptoms:

  • Speech Deprivation: Inability to hear or understand speech without a hearing aid or cochlear implant.
    Extreme Volume Necessity: Only hearing thunderous sounds.

Additional Symptoms Across Severity Levels:

  • Tinnitus: Experiencing ringing, buzzing, or hissing in the ears.
  • Balance Issues: Experiencing dizziness or balance problems.
  • Ear Pressure or Pain: Feeling like there’s fluid or pressure in the ear.
  • Speech Muffling: Finding speech and other sounds to seem muffled.
  • Difficulty with Accents: Struggling to understand foreign accents or speech from behind.
  • Sound Localization Issues: Having trouble discerning the direction of sounds.


If you notice any of these symptoms, consult a hearing professional for diagnosis and treatment options. Recognizing the symptoms early can lead to more effective management of your hearing health.

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What Are the Treatment Options for the Different Types of Hearing Loss?

Hearing loss treatments differ based on their type and severity. When addressing different types of hearing loss, prescription hearing aids play a pivotal role in enhancing hearing capabilities. Here’s a breakdown of standard treatment approaches for conductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing loss and how hearing aids play an important role in non-invasive or surgical options.

Conductive Hearing Loss Treatments and the Role of Hearing Aids:

  • Medications: Antibiotics are often prescribed to treat ear infections that might be causing conductive hearing loss.
  • Surgeries: Procedures like tympanoplasty, which repairs ruptured eardrums, and tympanostomy, where ear tubes are inserted, can help restore hearing.
  • Earwax Removal: Specialized methods to clear earwax buildup can sometimes immediately improve hearing.

While these treatments address specific causes of conductive hearing loss, prescription hearing aids can also be significantly beneficial. They are especially helpful in cases where hearing loss persists even after medical or surgical interventions. Custom-programmed hearing aids amplify external sounds, making them clearer and easier to understand, thus compensating for the hearing loss caused by obstructions or middle ear issues.



Sensorineural Hearing Loss Treatments and the Role of Hearing Aids:

  • Corticosteroids: These medications can reduce swelling in cochlear hair cells, potentially improving hearing.
  • Assistive Devices: Prescription hearing aids, and in severe cases, cochlear implants, can help manage sensorineural hearing loss.

Hearing aids amplify sounds, making them more accessible to the auditory system. While sensorineural hearing loss often has more complex causes and effects, prescription hearing aids offer significant help. They allow individuals to better engage with their environment, enhancing communication and overall quality of life.

It’s important to note that while these treatments and devices offer substantial benefits, they may have side effects. For instance, surgeries might lead to complications like graft failure or scarring in conductive hearing loss treatments. Similarly, cochlear implant surgery in sensorineural hearing loss cases can impact balance or residual hearing and, in rare instances, cause nerve damage or cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

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Mixed Hearing Loss Treatments:

Treatment involves a blend of conductive and sensorineural approaches based on specific ear issues.

In summary, treatment options range from medication and surgeries to advanced devices like prescription hearing aids and, in some cases, cochlear implants. Hearing aids have fewer serious side effects and can help you continue to enjoy the world of sound.

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Understand the Types of Hearing Loss Affecting Your Hearing Health

We’ve explored the various aspects of hearing loss. Whether you’re a hearing aid veteran or someone newly affected by hearing issues, this guide aims to empower you with the knowledge needed for better hearing health. Understanding what are the causes of hearing loss, as well as the different types, can help you make the best decisions for your auditory health.

If any of these symptoms or conditions resonate with you, don’t wait to take action. Start your hearing health journey now by taking Injoy Hearing’s online hearing quiz. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve your quality of life.


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